Tony rios brandeis university

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Tony rios brandeis university




LITERATURE: ARABIC, NORTH AFRICAN North African writers convey their ideas in French and Arabic in a variety of literary genres. The three countries of the Maghrib — Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia — share more than common geographic boundaries. They all succumbed to foreign invasions in the past and fell victim to the same colonial power: France. Colonial rule in the countries of the Maghrib tony rios brandeis university only in its strength and its duration, Algeria having endured the longest and most traumatizing occupation. The French army landed on the coast of Algeria in 1830 and completed its occupation of the country in 1881. Tunisia was conquered in 1880, and in 1912 Morocco was colonized. Algeria was a French province from 1848 until it achieved independence in 1962; the other two countries remained French protectorates until 1956. In Algeria, Arabic lost its efficacy long before it was declared a foreign language in 1938. Algerians conceded the fact that the language of the colonizer was the language of bread, but because it is the language of Islam, Arabic maintained its place in the lives of the people, even the Berbers, who spoke various Berber dialects. It became primarily the language of religious teaching and practice. Culturally, Morocco and Tunisia experienced French colonialism in a more subdued manner because they had centers of Arabic learning — the two mosque universities, al-Qarawiyyin in Fez and the Zaytuna in Tunis — that safeguarded and continued an existing cultural tradition. Many schools opted for bilingual instruction, so Arabic was on a par with French. The linguistic situation in essay book ecclesiastes Maghrib has provoked heated polemics between the partisans of French and those of Arabic, particularly in Algeria. Although it remains an issue to the present day due to the growing number of writers expressing themselves in French, it has lost its political connotation. The three countries of the Maghrib are similar in the role assumed by traditional Muslim centers, the zawiyas. Jealous of their power over the population and intent on playing a role in the political arena, some Zawiya essay book ecclesiastes placed themselves in an ambiguous position when they cooperated with French colonial authorities The French used them to legitimize their presence and gain the support of the local population. Aided by widespread illiteracy, the zawiyas maintained their control until they were challenged by the reformists of the Salafiyya movement, who were increasingly alarmed by the interference of the colonial administration in the religious affairs of their countries. The Algerian Reda Huhu ridiculed the official imams appointed by the colonial authorities and even spoke of an "official Islam," in contrast to the "people's Islam" in his Ma Himar al-Hakim (Conversations with al-Hakim's donkey). Following in the footsteps of the Salafiyya of the Mashreq, Maghribi intellectuals such as Allal al-Fasi (1910 – 1974) in Morocco, Abd al-Hamid Ben Badis (1889 – 1940) in Algeria, and Mohammad al-Fadel Ben Ashour (1909 – 1970) and Mohammad al-Taher Ben Ashour (1879 – 1973) in Tunisia confronted the leaders of the zawiyas. Their aim was to prove the compatibility of Islam and modernity, and the absence of a contradiction between progress, even in a Western context, and Islam. Their position appealed to the Maghribi youth. Opening up to the West, however, did not occur without a price, even for the French-educated Maghribis. The clash of the two civilizations was successfully dramatized by the Moroccan Driss Chraibi in Succession ouverte (1962; Heirs to the past) and Le passe simple (1983; The simple past), the Algerian Mouloud Mammeri (1917 – 1989) in his novel Le sommeil du juste (1955; The sleep of the just), and the Tunisian Albert Memmi (b. 1920). Memmi endured hardships as a Tunisian Jew caught between family traditions, colonial policy, and Nazi ideology, which he related in his novel La statue de sel (1953; The statue of salt). Maghribi writers writing in French are finally reconciled with their native culture and at ease in their setting. Some, such as the Algerian Habib Tengour (b. 1947), the Tunisian Abdelwahhab Meddeb (b. 1946), visi misi pkkmb unesa university the Moroccan Taher Ben Jelloun (b. 1944), dug into their Arab Islamic history and their folk heritage in search of subject matter for their works. Independence has, in a certain way, liberated the writers from guilt vis- à -vis their adoption of the French language. The 1980s witnessed an explosion of production in the Maghrib in various literary genres, in prose and in verse, and in Arabic and French. Particularly prominent in this trend are the women writers. They are slowly filling a space that for many years was dominated by the lone presence of the Algerian novelist Assia Djebar (b. 1936). Approaching the women's world from a feminist angle, her writings shed much of their traditionally romantic outlook on gender relations and with L'amour, la fantasia (1985; Fantasia: An Algerian Cavalcade) and Ombre sultane (1987; A sister to Scheherazade), she achieved a new depth by mixing history and fiction. Although Djebar has given a voice to Algerian women through films and plays, her greatest contribution is in fiction. Her latest novel, La femme sans sepulture (2002; Woman without a shroud) is a somewhat fictionalized biography of an Algerian woman who fought during the war of independence. Algeria's now long list of other women writing in French includes established names such as Leila Sebbar (b. 1941), Aicha Lemsine (b. 1942), and Anna Greki (1931 – 1966), and new names such as Hawa Djabali (b. 1949), Miriam Ben (b. 1928) and, more recently, Nina Bouraoui (b. 1967). Women writing in Arabic, on the other hand, have relied more on poetry to express themselves. One of the early poets, Ahlam Mustaghanmi (b. 1953), has recently turned to fiction, publishing two novels, Dhakirat al-jasad (1996; Memory of the flesh) and its sequel Fawda al-Hawas (1998; The chaos of the senses). In Tunisia, H é l é B é ji (b. 1948) contrasted traditional and modern cultures in her first novel, L'oeil du jour (1985; The eye of day). Women writing in Arabic who preceded her include Hind Azzouz (b. 1926), Nadjia Thamer (b. 1926), Arusiyya Naluti (b. 1950), and the poet Zoubeida B é chir (b. 1938). Contributing to the feminist debate in the Arab world, Zahra al-Jlasi (b. 1950) published al-Nas al-Mu ʾ annath (2000; The feminine text). In Morocco, Khanatha Bannounah (b. 1940) has contributed four collections of short stories and two novels, al-Nar wa al-Ikhtiyar (1968; Fire and choice) and al-Ghad wa al-Ghadab (1981; The future and the fury). A new generation of women novelists is slowly making headway but many have not published more than a single novel. The boundaries of the Maghribi writers have expanded tremendously, both geographically and culturally. Consequently, it is impossible to ignore the growing presence of Maghribi literature outside the countries of the Maghrib, both in Europe and in the Americas. Many writers live and work outside the Maghrib, and come into contact with various cultures. The Tunisian Mustafa Tony rios brandeis university brings his experience in the United States to his novels, and the writings of a Tunisian residing in Canada, H é di Bouraoui (b. 1932), reveal a rich canvas on which multiple Western cultures intertwine with Maghribi folklore. Majid el-Houssi bridges Italian and Tunisian cultures in his poetry and fiction. It is important to mention the role that private publishing houses in the Maghrib have played in the promotion of Maghribi literature. Although they impose a financial burden on aspiring young writers who publish their works at their own expense, they nevertheless provide them with greater freedom of expression and accelerate the publication process with the elimination of bureaucracy. The writings of the Maghribis have echoed during the last two decades the concerns of the population and the social ills in Morocco that contribute to clandestine immigration, as dramatized in Youssouf Amin Elalamy's Les clandestins (2000; The clandestines). The rejection of both the Islamists and the government in power in Algeria has fallen on the shoulders of women novelists struggling to secure their rights in a society where they are constantly victimized. Many of the essay book ecclesiastes political writers have so far been the authors of a single work, so it is difficult to assess their literary future. Whereas more writers in Algeria are resorting to the French language as their medium of expression, the scene in Morocco seems well balanced between Arabic and French, with the scale tilting in favor of Arabic. New fiction works of great literary value are being published, among them Ahmad alTawfiq's novels in which he reconciles Arab and Berber traditions, Izz ed-dine Tazi's huge literary production, and the numerous works of Mohammad Shukri, Mubarak Rabi, and Bensalem Himmish. The change in leadership in Morocco after 1999 led to the release of many prisoners who essay book ecclesiastes books describing their experiences in what came to be called prison literature. In contrast, francophone literature in present-day Tunisia is not a strong trend and offers no clear direction. Except for H é l é B é ji (b.1948) and to a lesser extent Moncef Ghachem (b. 1947), few have established a reputation beyond Tunisia's borders. To counteract the impact of French culture, the Association of Algerian Muslim Ulama (AUMA) was founded in 1931 by Abd al-Hamid Ben Badis (1889 – 1940). Its motto was "Algeria is my country, Islam is my religion, and Arabic is my language." The AUMA contributed to the revival of the Arabic language and the launching of a significant literary movement through its schools and its press. Well-known literary figures such as Ahmad Reda Huhu (1911 – 1956) and Zuhur Wanisi (b. 1936) either taught in the schools of the AUMA or studied there. Both fiction and poetry were published in the AUMA's two papers, al-Shihab (1925 – 1939) and alBasa ʾ ir (1935 – 1956). It is fair to say that modern Arabic literature in Algeria was born in the shadow of the AUMA. While fiction in Arabic was in an early stage and limited to short stories, Algerian fiction in French made its first appearance in the period between the two world wars. However, the most significant novel, Le fils du pauvre (The pauper's son), by Mouloud Feraoun (1913 – 1962), was not published until 1950. Its author stated that his motivation to write it was his desire to present a true portrait of the Algerian people, in reaction to Albert Camus's novels dealing with life in Algeria. Algeria's earlier novels were mostly ethnographic, but they became increasingly political as most writers set out to define and defend their national cause. They voiced the people's aspiration to freedom, described social ills, and condemned France's repressive colonial policy. The nascent literary movement coincided with the political consciousness of the Algerians heightened by their participation in the Etoile Nord Africaine, a party established in 1925 by Maghribis in France. The Algerian War of Independence (1954 – 1962) was another literary catalyst. It became the topic of choice for novelists, short-story writers, poets, and playwrights, especially after independence. Few, however, succeeded in reproducing the tragic and momentous events of the struggle without writing documentary-type works. The most original novel on the subject is Mohammed Dib's (1920 – 2003) Qui se souvient de la mer (1962; Who remembers the sea). Writers dwelt on the war years, using incidents mainly to incriminate the parasites and the false nationalists who exploited the ideals of the revolution and the memory of the martyrs. Rachid Boudjedra (b. 1941) pointed the finger at the new leadership and their coconspirators, the religious authorities, in his novel La f é pudiation (1969; Repudiation). AlTaher Wattar's al-laz (1974; The ace) stresses the tragic fate of the martyrs of the tony rios brandeis university who were quickly forgotten after independence. The French Algerian literature gained momentum following independence while Arabic writing lagged behind for more than a decade. In view of Algeria's Arabization policy, the French language was not expected to survive for long in postindependence Algeria; although the prediction did not materialize, the advocates of the two languages engaged in heated polemics on the merits of one over the other. The debates subsided in virulence, and the linguistic choice of the Maghribi writers is still a subject of contention. The only writer to cross the language barrier in Algeria is, so far, Rachid Boudjedra. With his novel al-Tafakkuk (1982; The dismantling) he began the trend of writing novels in Arabic and translating them into French, a process that continues to the present day. It is doubtful, however, that readers view Boudjedra as an Arab-language writer. After the war of independence, writers' interests shifted to other social, personal, and philosophical themes. Minority groups such as the Berbers used their writings to promote their heritage. The most committed writer of the postindependence period was Mouloud Mammeri (1917 – 1989). Meaningful works also were published by the novelist Nabile Far è s (b. 1940). Before them, the Amrouche family — Jean el-Mouhouv (1906 – 1962); his mother, Fadhma At Mansour (1882 – 1967); and his sister, Mary Louise Amrouche (1913 – 1976) — endeavored to safeguard the Berber folk heritage. One of Algeria's most prolific and greatest writers, Mohammed Dib, shifted his attention from politics to other topics following independence. Between his well-known trilogy, Algeria, which included La grande maison, (1952; The big house), L'incendie (1954; The fire), and Le m é tier à tisser (1957; The loom), and his latest novel, L'Infante maure (1994; The Moorish Infanta), the author traversed a path that led him from a direct approach and straightforward style to the depths of abstraction. He remains attuned to events in Algeria in his collection of short stories, La nuit sauvage (1995; The savage night), which depicts violence in his country and in the rest of the world. Dib was among those who believed that the role of the writer as an advocate for the national cause was finished when their country achieved independence. Another who began writing in the colonial period and continued long after independence is the poet Noureddine Aba (1921 – 1996). After Algeria's independence he dedicated his efforts to other Arab causes, particularly to the Palestinian problem, which figures in two of his poetic plays, Montjoie Palestine (1970; Palestine, my joy) and Tel El-Zaatar s'est tu à la tomb é e de la nuit (1981; Tel ElZaatar fell silent at night). Many younger poets writing in Arabic have also expressed a great affinity with the ordeal of the Palestinian people. The younger generation of writers who did not experience the war years have manifested a particular concern with their leadership's handling of the political, financial, and social affairs of the country. Writers such as Taher Djaout (1954 – 1993), Rachid Mimouni (1945 – 1995), and the poet Hamid Skif (b. 1951) have not minced their words in criticizing the government. In the 1990s the dissent was aimed at the government and the Muslim fundamentalists, in Boudjedra's FIS de la Haine (1992), Mimouni's La malediction (1993; The malediction), and Djebar's Le blanc de l'Alg é rie (1995; The white of Algeria) and Oran, langue morte (1997; Oran, a dead language), in which the author mourns the assassinations of Algerian writers and intellectuals, including Taher Djaout. Most of the works dealing with violence in Algeria reveal the difficulty of reproducing the magnitude of the tragedy in fiction. Unable essay book ecclesiastes distance themselves from events they endured daily, writers provided testimonies rather than fictional accounts of reality, a trend observed in Leila Aslawi's Survivre comme l'espoir (1994; To survive like hope), Latifa Ben Mansour's La pri è re de la peur (1997; The prayer of fear), and Nina Hayat's La nuit tombe sur Alger la blanche (1995; Night falls on white Algiers). In Arabic, Laraj Should hire resume writer wrote Sayyidat al-Maqam (The mistress of the abode), relating the events in the framework of a love story, while Wattar used his traditional Sufi approach in al-Wali al-Tahir ya ʿ udu ila makamihi al-zaki (2000; The chaste Wali returns to pure his tomb). Other angry voices heard around the Mediterranean in the mid-1980s were those of the second generation of Maghribi immigrants, mainly Algerians living in France (and in Belgium), known as Beurs. They decried their feelings of loss and their search for identity in violent texts that reflected deep frustration, some of which have achieved notoriety: Farida Belghoul's (b. 1958) Georgette (1986), Sakina Boukhedenna's (b. 1959) Journal and "nationalit é : immigr é (e)" (1987; Nationality: Immigrant), and Mehdi Charef's (b. 1952) Le th é au harem d'Archi Ahmed (1983; Tea in the harem). Their movement is significant for its global nature. One writer, Azouz Begag, who attracted the attention of the critics with his first novel, Le gone du cha â ba (1986; The lad of the alley), has established himself as a spokesperson for the Beur with a prolific literary production. Begag shows the human face of the immigrant in quietly humorous works such as Dis Oualla (1997; Say, by God) and Le passport (200; The passport) where Arabic terms abound. Morocco's modern literary history is in many aspects similar to Tunisia's, but its proximity to the Iberian Peninsula has added an extra dimension to its culture. The Arab Islamic heritage of Andalusia and the flight of many Muslims and Jewish Andalusians to Morocco upon the reconquest of Spain has linked Morocco to Europe historically and culturally. Because French occupation came late to Morocco and as a result of the political organization of the Free essays on poverty alleviation through essay depot, French culture did not deeply or easily infiltrate the educational foundations of the country. It was also counteracted by the Arab Islamic cultural activities centered in Fez. The two writers who dominated the colonial period and wrote in French, Driss Chraibi and Ahmed Sefrioui, did not promote French ideals. Chraibi denounced the traumatic impact of Western civilization and the hardships of the emigrant workers in France, and in his latest ting li wang university has become an advocate of the Berber cause. Sefrioui, on the other hand, revived the folk literature of his country, thus drawing the line between his world and the Western world. Another writer, Mohammad Khair Eddine (b. 1941 – 1995), has shown strong connections with his country in spite of his vagabond life and the many years he spent outside Morocco. A younger novelist, Taher Benjelloun (Taher ben Jelloun; b. 1944), well known for his innovative style and form, won the Prix Goncourt for La nuit sacr é tony rios brandeis university (1987; The sacred night). Parallel to an important literary movement in French, Morocco counts an impressive array of distinguished writers expressing themselves in Arabic, including Mohammad Ezzeddine Tazi (b. 1948) and Mohammad Zafzaf (1946 – 2001). Many among them, such as al-Miloudi Shaghmoum (b. 1947) and Abdessalam al-Boqqali (b. 1932), are bilingual and have used their multiculturalism to produce original works reflecting new trends in the European novel. A few, such as Mohammad Aziz al-Habbabi (1922 – 1993), write in both Arabic and French. Many of the Moroccan novels written in the middle of the twentieth century were historical, stressing the authors' pride in the country's past. Bensalem Himmish's (b. 1949) Majnun al-Hukm (1990; Power crazy) and Lotfi Akaley's (b. 1943) Ibn Battuta (1998; Ibn Battuta, the well-known Arab traveler) found in Arab culture and history a rich source of material for their fiction works. Poetry is a particularly popular genre in Morocco among those writing in Arabic and in French. The imprisonment of Abdellatif Laabi for his daring critical works shows the efficacy of this literary genre. Poety is celebrated on a national and official level in Morocco. It occupies a major place in the yearly Rabat cultural festival. Moroccan poetry has a permanent center known as Bayt al-shi ʿ r (The house of poetry), under the presidency of the poet Muhammad Bannis. Among Moroccan women poets, Malika al-Asimi is exceptionally outspoken, discussing intimate topics and contesting society's restrictions, in her two collections Kitabat Kharij Aswar al-Alam (1988; Writings outside the walls of the world) and Aswat Hanjara Mayyita (1988; Voices from a dead throat). An equally bold attitude can be observed in Siham Benchkroun's A toi (2000; To you). Traditional in form and patriotic in content at the beginning of the twentieth century, Moroccan literature has taken a more personal and philosophical trend since the mid-1970s, with a tendency for renewal and experimentation in form and style. Tunisia's cultural history is quite different from that of its neighbor, Algeria. Tunisia benefited from the activities of the Zaytuna mosque-university and the Sadiqi college; both were instrumental in preserving and promoting Arabic culture. The country's close contacts with the Mashriq in opposition to the term maghrib (referring to North Africa) designates the Egypt and the Levant were another asset in its rich literary activities. As Tunisian writers contributed to the nahda, the literary revival in the Arab world, the most significant input came from the poet Abu tony rios brandeis university al-Shabbi (1909 – 1934). Most Tunisian writers expressed themselves in Arabic. Between the two world wars the journal alAlam al-Adabi (1930 – 1952; The literary world) encouraged writers of the young generation, including members of the most famous literary group of this period, Jama ʿ at Taht al-Sur (Below the wall group), which counted such established authors as Ali alDu ʿ aji (1909 – 1949) and Mahmoud al-Mes ʿ adi (b. 1911). Alwatan english newspaper similar role was assumed by the journal AlFikr (1955 – 1986; The thinking, or The thought) in the second half of the twentieth century. Tunisia had very few writers in French during the colonial period. The best known among them was Albert Memmi, who now lives in France. Surprisingly, their numbers have soared in the last two decades. Although they write in French, they borrow heavily from their Arab Islamic heritage. A few, such as Salah Garmadi (1933 – 1982) and Taher Bakri (b. 1951), are bilingual poets. Arabic literature in Tunisia, especially fiction, continues to flourish. It is a field for innovation and experimentation both in style and in form. The nationalist and patriotic works of the early period, the period of the French protectorate, gave way to a broader variety of subjects; the tone also became less moralizing. It is not unusual to find writers contributing to more than one literary genre, producing novels, short stories, and plays. The theater, too, has had a revival in Tunisia thanks to the efforts of Izziddin al-Madani (b. 1938). Because of the numerous cultural festivals held in Tunisia, many plays are performed. Of the three countries of the Maghrib, Tunisia has the largest number of women writing in Arabic. Although the mere fact of their writing is a reflection of change in society, the women do not always promote complete emancipation. Slowly but progressively their tone has become more daring. Raising certain questions is in itself a revolutionary stance: Subjects such as birth control and abortion, discussed by Hind Azzouz (b. 1926) in Fi al-Darb alTawil (1969; On the long road), are a novelty. Some, such as Fatima Slim (b. 1942), observe the loss of the old values in a changing society. The most un-inhibited is Laila Ben Mami (b. 1944), author of Sawma ʿ a Tahtariq (1968; The burning hermitage), who believes in sexual freedom for the artist. The image of the modern woman also is defined by male writers. Generally, most novelists tony rios brandeis university the late 1960s and the 1970s called for a bigger role for women in society. In the novel Wa Nasibi min al-Ufuq (1970; My share of the horizon), Abdel Qader Ben Shaikh (b. 1929) calls for the emancipation of women, the easing of parents' control, and the relaxing of social traditions. Mustafa al-Farsi (b. 1931) takes a similar position in al-Mun ʿ araj (1969; The curve). As reflected in literature, Tunisian women suffered from a changing society and the consequences of their efforts to balance the claims of a traditional upbringing with those of the modern world in which they wanted to prove themselves. The situation claimed some victims in the period of transition — for example, the characters drawn by Natila al-Tabayniyy (b. 1949) in Shay ʾ un fi Nafsika (1970; Something within yourself) — but an irreversible trend was set for future generations. Some contemporary writers have achieved recognition for their innovative techniques and timely topics while remaining close to the people's problems. Such is the case of Mohammad al-Hadi Ben Saleh (b. 1945), who portrayed the bread riots in his novel Sifr al-Naqla wa al-Tasawwur (1988; The book of transfer and imagination). Poetry, too, responded to the people's concerns, as shown in the work of Mohammad al-Habib al-Zanad (b. 1946) in his collection al-Majzum bi lam (1970; The form tense). Fadila al-Shabi (b. 1946) believes in the free expression of the poet in her work, without outside guidance. Another poet, Samira al-Kasrawi (b. 1957), is preoccupied with the political situation in the Arab world, as is obvious in her books Balagha Shi ʿ riyya fi al-Rafd wa al-Huriyya wa al-Rasas (1982; Poetic eloquence in rejection, freedom, and bullets) and Malhamat al-Mawt wa al-Milad fi Sha ʿ bi (1983; The epic of death and life for my people). Tunisian poetry maintains a constant connection with the problems of the Arab world and especially those of Palestine. Writers reacted to the Gulf War of 1991 in a spirit of Arab solidarity; one example is Aroussia Nalouti (b. 1950), who incorporates the war into her novel Tamas (1995; Tengance). Some writers, poets, and novelists seek an escape from life's constraints in love, sexual adventures, and exile, but few find solace, which explains Ridha K é fi's (b.1955) pessimism in his poetic collection Mariya al-Mayyita (1981; Dead Mary) and his novel al-Qina Taht al-jild (1990; The masque under the skin). Similar sentiments prevail in Nefla Dahab's (b. 1947) third novella, Samt (1993; Silence). Though many writers have authored only a single book or are still searching for the most suitable form for their ideas, it is possible to trace a general trend in Tunisian literature: There is a growing sense of melancholy and disappointment in the most recent writings, which has led to introversion. This is manifested in a fashion for autobiographical novels, an example of which is Hassouna Misbahi's (b. 1950) Kitab al-Tih (1997; The book of the maze). see also amrouche, fadhma at mansour; amrouche, jean; amrouche, mary louise (a.k.a. marguerite taos); association of algerian muslim ulama (auma); ben badis, abd al-hamid; boudjedra, rachid; chraibi, driss; dib, mohammed; djaout, taher; djebar, assia; far È s, nabile; fasi, allal al-; feraoun, mouloud; laabi, abdellatif; lemsine, aicha; maghrib; meddeb, abdelwahhab; memmi, albert; mimouni, rachid; rabi, mubarak; sebbar, leila; sefrioui, ahmed; shukri, mohammad; tlili, mustafa; wattar, al-taher. Berger, Anne-Emmanuelle, ed. Algeria in Others' Languages. Ithaca, NY, and London: Cornell University Press, 2002. Cox, Debbie. Politics, Language, and Gender in the Algerian Arabic Novel. New York: The Edwin Mellen Press, 2002. Mortimer, Mildred, ed. Maghrebian Mosaic. A Literature in Transition. Boulder CO: Lynne Reinner, texas lutheran university majors

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