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Australian Human Rights Commission This chapter provides a review of the role of the media in constructing and reinforcing stereotypes and discriminatory attitudes toward older Australians. Before providing detailed analysis of the perceived influence of the media on the formation of stereotypes, it is important to review media consumption as reported by community and business respondents. Not surprisingly, there are differences between younger and older respondents (see Table 8). Younger respondents are generally more likely to consume digital media and to engage with social/peer-to-peer platforms than older participants, including: accessing social media watching online television including streaming, catch-up TV and Apple TV watching movies including renting, downloading, streaming or going to the movies at a cinema. Older respondents are more likely to engage in more traditional media, including: Table 8: Media consumption by audience. Question: During a typical week, do you. Base: All respondents (Community, n=2,020), (18 – 34, n=175), (25 – 34, n=436), (35 – 44, n=452), (45 – 54, n=448), (55 – 64, n=234), (65+, n=275), (Business n=504). A/B/C/D/E/F: Significantly Between obligate vs facultative saprobes? at the 95% confidence level. Key differences in consumption of media by demographic group include: females are significantly more likely to be accessing social media (72%), when compared to males (59%) males are more likely than females to report engaging with: newspapers (70% compared to 64%) pay TV (33% compared to 28%) those with university qualifications are more likely to report engaging with most media sources (with the exception of magazines, free-to-air TV and pay TV) than those whose highest educational attainment is high school or below a similar pattern is seen for those on higher household incomes ($100k or more) and those employed full time, with these respondents being more likely to consume all media sources other than glasgow university map gregory building materials when compared to those on lower incomes or other employment arrangements those who have children living with them are significantly more likely to listen to the radio (80%), when compared to those living alone (71%) and those living with a partner without children (73%) those living with a partner without children are significantly more likely to read newspapers (76%) compared to those who live alone (61%) or those who live with children (67%). There also appears to be some link between the consumption of social media and negative attitudes. Those who are more likely to be classified as holding predominantly negative attitudes (including younger Between obligate vs facultative saprobes?, university graduates, and full time workers) are also more likely to be accessing social media (such as Twitter and Facebook), when compared to those who are not classified in this manner. Findings from the audit of social media identify that peaks in social media discussion about older people are focused on reports of older people as the victims of crime, or as otherwise physically vulnerable or at risk of illness. Discussions during the qualitative stage (focus groups) indicate that many older people feel some sense of invisibility. The media is seen as a contributor to this sense of invisibility, with many of the older community members in the focus groups feeling that older Australians are invisible within the media. This includes invisibility from the perspective of stories and also from the viewpoint of role models and media leaders: “If you look at the percentage of people, the age bracket in a particular show, I think Australian-made television has a very low average age of perform[ers] compared to something coming out of Europe.” (65+ years) “It’s kind of middle-age or ancient. there is no middle ground.” (18-25 years) “Even like presenters and stuff on TV have an expiry date where they are no longer useful.” (18-25 years) These qualitative comments are supported by quantitative findings from a scan of Australian media content, with this scan indicating that older people are clearly underrepresented in the media. This is the case across editorial news, current affairs Between obligate vs facultative saprobes? and advertising. From analysis of a sample that was drawn from the highest-rating and widest-circulating outlets: people aged 65+ featured in 4.7% of the advertising content people aged 65+ were mentioned in 6.6% of the editorial media content people aged over 55 were referred to in 11.5% of the editorial media content. Given that in 2012, people aged 65 or more made up 14.2% of the Australian population and people aged 55 or more made up 25.6%, this analysis indicates that older people are invisible in the media relative to their presence in the population. Almost all participants in the focus groups felt that the media has an impact on attitudes and behaviours and many felt that the impact is negative. Some feel that the media has a strong and pervasive impact on views about older people and that it is often at the heart of views and perceptions which are commonly held: “Since most of us writing my research paper the use of religion in paintings during the counter-reformation no other independent way of learning how the world goes, one way or another pretty much everything we get comes through the media. It may not come to us first hand through the media, it may filter through the opinions of other people who have seen that or other things but you can’t get away from the fact that most of the opinions you have on almost anything have come through the media in some form and it may be quite convoluted. but it is there.” (65+ years) “Kids are like sponges.” (18-25 years) “We subconsciously absorb it as well and then when you see an older person all these things come up. You don’t know where they come from but they’ve come from everything that you have seen.” (18-25 years) “It’s huge. because the majority of the population are either insufficiently educated and I don’t mean school. [they don’t] really look into things and they are buy essay online cheap a regenerative braking mechanism using kers to slogans or headlines.” (65+ years) “The influence is subliminal, for those who are not constructive enough in their lives to form their own views.” (65+ years) However, for others the strength of the media in influencing views depends on the degree to which someone has contact with an older person. If someone knows an older person (e.g. their grandfather), then this individual will hold views based on their experience, with limited influence from the media. If an individual does not have contact with an older person, then perceptions will be limited to those available in the media: “I still think personal experience trumps everything – everyone here has a strong view because they knew their grandparents or something when they were sick. no matter how many ads that is going to trump it every single time. Problem is, if you don’t have connections with a family member you are more reliant on advertising and television.” (35-54 years) Others also feel that personal experience reinforces positive opinions of ageing and old age, while negative perceptions are often reinforced through the media. The main example given in relation to this interaction is the perception that older people are more likely to be victims of crime. Most who feel that this statement is true do not personally know an older person who has been a victim, although all have seen stories in the media and feel that victimisation is a common occurrence. In contrast, their reaction to the stereotype that all old people are the same is vehement in its rebuttal, simply because their grandparents had been interesting, different, fun etc, and different from other older people they knew. Personal experience with someone older overcomes the issues of homogeneity and invisibility discussed in relation to the media. To understand better the relative impact of the media on negative attitudes, all respondents in the quantitative study who agreed or agreed strongly with specific negative attitudes were asked to indicate how much influence different information sources had on the formation of these attitudes. In addition to media (including visual media, print media and advertising), the relative impact of the following were assessed: personal experience cultural background educational attainment work colleagues the perceived Australian ‘youth culture’. Across all negative attitudes, personal experience, stories seen in the media and stories read in the media are the strongest contributors. While influences including cultural background, educational attainment, colleagues and Australia’s youth culture do have some impact, this influence is muted, with generally less than one third of respondents feeling that these aspects have an influence on their attitudes about older people. In line with findings from the qualitative phase (focus groups), across most attitudes, personal experience is considered to be the main driver behind attitude formation in most instances. This is particularly the case with attitudes related to cognitive deficiencies of older people, where more than seven in ten respondents feel that their personal experience has contributed to their beliefs about older people. While findings from the media scan do not indicate a skew toward stories focusing on the negative cognitive abilities of older people, discussions during the qualitative phase indicate that commercial programming (particularly drama series) is often seen to show older people as forgetful. As such, there is some scope for the media to assist in breaking down these attitudes by providing alternative views of ageing in commercial programming. It is clear that the media (both print and visual) has a key role in the formation of several commonly perceived stereotypes about older people: Victimisation: Almost three-quarters (73%) of respondents feel that stories they see in the media have an influence on the belief of older people as victims. A similar proportion (71%) feel that stories they read in the media have an influence while less than half (41%) feel that this belief is based on personal experience. This is consistent with findings from the qualitative research, where stereotypes related to victimisation are seen to be reinforced and encouraged though external sources rather than personal experience: “You hear about it in the media – if an old lady has been broken into and she’s been hit on the head you are going to hear about it in all the media and the papers and stuff – whereas young people are getting assaulted all the time but I think the media hones into it more [when it is an older person].” (35-54 years) Some sub-groups are more likely to feel that the media has an influence on their perception of older people as victims. These included: women those with a university qualification CALD respondents. Findings from the media scan confirm that a considerable volume of media content focuses on Between obligate vs facultative saprobes? which portray older people as victims – ‘unknown’ older people were most often mentioned in the analysed news and current affairs coverage as the victims of crime. 52% of those aged 18-54 years agree that older people are more likely to be victims and there is evidence that this negative attitude is driven to a considerable degree frisbee golf kaupat tampere university the media. Lonely and isolated: The perception that older people are lonely and isolated also appears to be heavily influenced by media (both print and visual), although personal experience also has a role to play. Six in ten (63%) of respondents Free write ideas that stories they see in the media have an influence on their perception that older people are lonely and isolated and a similar proportion (60%) feel that stories they read in the media have an influence. However, two-thirds (65%) also feel that their personal experience has contributed to their belief that older people are lonely or isolated. This is in contrast to the findings from the media scan. In both mainstream news media and advertising, older people are rarely presented as isolated, alone or lonely. In news media, they are almost as likely to be pictured in a social or public setting as in a domestic or private setting. However, findings from the qualitative phase show a strong link between the concepts of physical frailty, victimisation and the concept that Between obligate vs facultative saprobes? people are isolated and lonely. In many ways, one results in the other from a participant view – if an older person is afraid of being victimised or if they are too frail to leave the house, then their ability to socially engage is directly affected. More likely to be sick: Personal experience and the media have a strong influence on the perception that older people are more likely to be sick. More than half (58%) of respondents feel that stories they read in the media have an influence on this perception and a similar proportion (61%) feel that stories they see in the media have an influence. Personal experience is most likely to influence this perception, with 68% stating that this is influential in attitude formation. Findings from the media scan indicate that media coverage como arreglar una secadora de ropa que no calienta skew toward a portrayal of older people as sick and vulnerable. Mainstream news media content most often presents older people as passive, vulnerable and frail and these traits were frequently associated with older people in the contexts of ill health. Peaks in social media discussion of older people are similarly focused around reports of older people as physically vulnerable or at risk of illness. There is perceived influence of the media on perceptions that older people are more likely to be sick and 36% agree that this stereotype is an accurate reflection of the older population. Are bad drivers: 62% of respondents feel that media they see has an influence on their perception that older people are bad drivers and the same proportion again (62%) feel that media they read has an influence. Personal experience also plays a role, with 73% feeling that their experience underpins their perceptions of the driving abilities of older people. The media scan indicates that coverage of accidents in relation to older Australians is notable and that traffic accidents are often a focus of this coverage. While it is not possible to confirm whether media stories related to traffic accidents place older people at fault, there is scope for the media to assist in the breakdown of this stereotype by reinforcing the Free write ideas traits associated with elderly drivers. Other attitudes where a majority of respondents feel that the media has contributed to their perceptions of older people include: a perception that older people are a significant cost to the health system: 66% feel that stories they see in the media have an influence and 65% feel that stories they read in the media have an influence a perception that older people complain a lot: 53% feel that stories they read or see in the media have an impact on their perception that older people are likely to complain. Table 9: Influence quality custom essays ukulele underground europa moon to what planet specific levers on key attitudes (order of most frequently mentioned by those aged 18-54 years)

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