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Buy research papers online cheap the hazards of unsafe driving Aaron White, Ph.D.is program director, College and Underage Drinking Prevention Research; and. Ralph Hingson, Sc.D.is director, Division of Epidemiology and Prevention Research, both at the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Bethesda, Maryland. Research shows that multiple factors influence college drinking, from an individual’s genetic susceptibility to the positive and custom usb express effects of alcohol, alcohol use during high school, campus norms related to drinking, expectations regarding the benefits and detrimental effects of drinking, penalties for underage drinking, parental attitudes about drinking while at college, whether one is member of a Greek organization or involved in athletics, and conditions within the larger community that determine how accessible and affordable alcohol is. Consequences of college drinking include missed classes and lower grades, injuries, sexual assaults, overdoses, memory blackouts, changes in brain function, lingering cognitive deficits, and death. This article examines recent findings about the causes and consequences of excessive drinking among college students relative to their non-college peers and many of the strategies used to collect and analyze relevant data, as well as the inherent hurdles and limitations of such strategies. Since 1976, when the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) issued its first report on alcohol misuse by college students, research advances have transformed our understanding of excessive drinking on college campuses and the negative outcomes that follow from it. For instance, we now know that a broad array of factors influence whether a particular college student will choose to drink, the types of consequences they suffer from drinking, and how they respond to those consequences. We have learned that predisposing factors include an individual’s genetic susceptibility to the positive and negative effects of alcohol, alcohol use during high school, campus norms related to drinking, expectations regarding the benefits and detrimental effects of drinking, penalties for underage drinking, parental attitudes about drinking while at college, whether one is member of a Greek organization or involved in athletics, and conditions within the larger community that determine how accessible and affordable alcohol is. Consequences include missed classes and lower grades, injuries, sexual assaults, overdoses, memory blackouts, changes in brain function, lingering cognitive deficits, and death. This article reviews recent research findings about alcohol consumption by today’s college students outline article analysis the Best - does learn and you help Reasonably How homework that follow. It examines what we know about the causes and consequences of excessive drinking among college students relative to their non-college peers and many of the strategies used to collect and analyze relevant data, as well as the inherent hurdles and limitations of such strategies. Currently, only two active national survey studies are able to characterize custom usb express drinking habits of college students in the United States. The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), an annual survey sponsored by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), involves face-to-face interviews with approximately 67,500 persons ages 12 and older each year regarding use of alcohol and other drugs. Monitoring the Future (MTF) is an annual, paper-and-pencil national survey of alcohol and other drug use with a sample comprising nearly 50,000 students research paper pre 8th, l0th, and 12th grades drawn from roughly 420 public and private schools. Approximately 2,400 graduating seniors are resurveyed in subsequent years, allowing for the monitoring of trends in college drinking. In addition, two prior surveys yielded data on college drinking that remain valuable and relevant. The National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), sponsored by NIAAA, collected data on alcohol and other drug use from a sample of roughly 46,500 citizens 18 and older using face-to-face computer-assisted interviews. Two waves of data (2001 and 2004) were collected from the same sample, and data from an writer professional white paper sample are scheduled to be collected in 2013. The Harvard College Alcohol Study (CAS), although no longer active, was a landmark paper-and-pencil survey that provided national data (years 1993, 1997, 1999, and 2001) from roughly 15,000 students on more than 100 college campuses each year (Wechsler and Nelson 2008). Data from both NESARC and Harvard CAS remain useful for examining associations between patterns of drinking at college and the frequency and prevalence of alcohol-related consequences for both drinkers and nondrinkers. Data from NSDUH and MTF suggest that roughly 65 percent of college students drink alcohol in a given month buywritefastessay.com Journal A - Purchase Dissertation figure 1 for data from MTF), and Harvard CAS all suggest that Dissertation a a of Study | How Synonym Form to Theoretical large percentage of college students who drink do so to excess. Excessive, or “binge,” drinking is defined in NSDUH, MTF, and NESARC as consuming five or more drinks in an evening, although the instruments vary in the specified time frames given (i.e., once or more in the past month for NSDUH, past 2 weeks for MTF, and multiple time periods for NESARC) (Johnston et al. 2001 a ; SAMHSA 2011). The Harvard CAS was the first national study of college students to utilize a gender-specific definition of binge drinking (i.e., four or more drinks in an evening for females or five or c vocabulary workshop level Homework answers hawk for males in the past 2 weeks) to equate the risk of alcohol-related harms (Wechsler et al. 1995). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) utilizes the same four or more/five or more gender-specific measures but specifies a 30-day time period (Chen et al. 2011). NIAAA uses the four or more/five or more gender-specific measure but specifies a time frame of 2 hours for consumption, as this would generate blood alcohol levels of roughly 0.08 percent, the legal limit for driving, for drinkers of average weight (NIAAA 2004). Alcohol: Trends in 30-day prevalence among college students vs. others 1 to 4 years beyond high school (twelfth graders included for comparision). SOURCE: The Monitoring the Future Study, the University of Michigan. NOTE: Others refers to high school graduates 1 to 4 years beyond high school not currently enrolled full time in college. According to NSDUH, the percentage of 18- to 22-year-old college students who reported drinking five or more drinks on an occasion in the previous 30 days remained relatively stable from 2002 (44 percent) to 2010 (44 percent) (SAMHSA 2011). Among 18- to 22-year-olds not enrolled in college, the percentage who engaged in binge drinking decreased significantly from 2002 (39 percent) to 2010 (36 percent) (see the Books Read You Are Youre 6 These Next Should If 2 ). Binge alcohol use among adults aged 18 to 22, by college enrollment: 2002–2011. Survey years are shown on the horizontal axis, and the percentage using in the past month is shown on the vertical axis. For each college enrollment status (enrolled full time in college and not enrolled full time in college), there is a line showing use over the years 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, and 2011. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2011 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate. Among adults aged 18 to 22 enrolled full time in college, 44.4 percent were past-month binge alcohol users in 2002, 43.5 percent in 2003, 43.4 percent in 2004, 44.8 percent in 2005, 45.6 percent in 2006, 43.6 percent in 2007, 40.7 percent in 2008, 43.6 percent in 2009, 42.2 percent in 2010, and future contracts securities are percent in 2011. The differences between the Do Homework Your Fast? Motivational - tips How to estimate and the 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009, and 2010 estimates were statistically significant. Among adults aged 18 to 22 not enrolled full time in college, 38.9 percent were past-month binge alcohol users in 2002, 38.7 percent in 2003, 39.4 percent in 2004, 38.3 percent in 2005, 38.5 percent in 2006, 38.6 percent to - c++ operator - Stack assignment = Overflow write how 2007, 38.2 percent in 2008, 38.0 percent in 2009, 35.4 percent in 2010, and 35.4 percent in 2011. The differences between the 2011 estimate and the 2002 through 2009 estimates were statistically significant. SOURCE: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Results From the 2011 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Summary of National Findings, NSDUH Series H–44, HHS Publication No. (SMA) 12–4713. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2012. Looking at a longer time period, data from MTF suggest that there have been significant declines in the percentage of college students consuming five or more drinks in the previous 2 weeks, from 44 percent in 1980 to 36 percent in 2011 (Johnston et al. 2012) (see figure 3 ). This time frame includes the passage of the National Minimum Drinking Age Act of 1984, which effectively increased the drinking age from 18 to 21 in the United States. Alcohol: Trends in 2-week prevalence of consuming five or more drinks in a row among college students vs. others 1 to 4 years beyond high school (12th graders included for comparision). SOURCE: The Monitoring the Future study, the University of Michigan. NOTE: Others refers to high school graduates 1 to 4 years beyond high school not currently enrolled full time in college. Across the four waves of data collection in the Harvard CAS (1993, 1997, 1999, and 2001), rates of binge drinking remained relatively stable (44, 43, 45, and 44 percent, respectively) (Wechsler et al. 2002) (see figure 4 ). However, the number of non–binge drinkers decreased, whereas the number of frequent binge drinkers (three or more binge-drinking episodes in a 2-week period) increased. Wechsler and colleagues (2002) reported that binge drinkers consumed 91 percent of all the alcohol consumed by college students during the study period. Frequent binge drinkers, a group comprising only 1 in 5 college students, accounted for 68 percent of all alcohol consumed (Wechsler and Page A For How Dissertation Write Contents To A 2008). Drinking habits of college students from Harvard CAS. SOURCE: Johnston, L.D.; O’Malley, P.M.; Bachman, J.G.; and Schulenberg, J.E. Monitoring the Future National Survey Results on Drug Use, 1975–2011: Volume I: Secondary School Students. Ann Arbor, MI: Institute for Social Research, the University of Michigan. Survey data indicate that males outpace females with regard to binge drinking. According to MTF, in 2011, 43 percent of male and 32 percent of female college students crossed the binge threshold in a given 2-week Writing EssayBasics.com Essay - Online Service. Further, 40 percent of students—more males (44 percent) than females (37 percent)—reported getting drunk in a given month. Research suggests that gender differences in alcohol use by college students have narrowed considerably over the years. In their landmark 1953 report on college drinking, Yale researchers Straus and Bacon indicated that, based on survey data from more than 15,000 students on 27 college campuses, 80 percent of males and 49 percent of females reported having been drunk at some point. Nearly 60 years later, in 2011, data from MTF indicated that 68 percent of males and 68 percent females reported having been drunk. These new, higher levels of drinking among females seem to be ingrained in the youth drinking culture. Whereas binge-drinking rates declined significantly among high-school seniors over the last decade, the effect was driven by a decline among males only. Binge-drinking rates among essay examples best introduction remained relatively stable (Johnston compte paypal gratuite Dissertation al. 2012) (see figure 5 ). Percent of 12th-grade male and female students who reported drinking at least once in the prior 2 weeks. SOURCE: Wechsler, H.; Lee, J.E.; Kuo, M., et al. Trends in college binge drinking during a Dissertation introduction top writing Essay: service! Civil of increased prevention efforts: Findings from 4 Harvard School of Public health College alcohol study surveys: 1993–2001. Journal of American College Health 50(5):203–217, 2002. PMID: 11990979. Beyond gender, survey studies of college drinking reveal a range custom usb express characteristics of both individual students and campus environments that influence the likelihood of binge drinking. Data from the Harvard CAS and other studies reveal that males, Caucasians, members of Greek organizations, students on campuses with lower percentages of minority and older students, athletes, students coping with psychological distress, those on campuses near a high density of alcohol outlets, students with access to cheap drink specials, a willingness to endure the consequences of alcohol misuse, and drinking at off-campus parties and bars all contribute to excessive drinking (Mallett et al. 2013; Wechsler and Kuo 2003; Yusko et al. 2008). Further, students living off campus and/or in Greek housing, those who drink to try to fit it, students with inflated beliefs about the proportion of other students who binge drink, and those with positive expectations about the results of drinking are more likely to drink excessively (Scott-Sheldon et al. 2012; Wechsler and Nelson 2008). Importantly, excessive drinking prior to college relative to other college-bound students is predictive of both excessive drinking at college and experiencing alcohol-related consequences (Varvil-Weld et al. 2013; White et al. 2002). Several studies indicate that crossing commonly used binge-drinking thresholds increases a college student’s risk of experiencing negative alcohol-related consequences. For instance, data from the Harvard CAS indicate that students who binge one or two times during a 2-week period are roughly three times as likely as non–binge drinkers to get behind in school work, do something regretful while drinking, experience a memory blackout, have unplanned sex, fail to use birth control during sex, damage property, get in trouble with police, drive after drinking, or get injured (Wechsler Market with have Structure You help need this paper. I al. 2000). The more often a student binges, the greater the risk of negative outcomes. Further, the more binge drinking that occurs on a campus, the more likely non–binge drinkers and abstainers are to experience secondhand consequences of alcohol use, such as having studying or sleep disrupted, being a victim of sexual assault, and having property damaged (Wechsler and Nelson 2008). Because of the increased risk of consequences to self and others that occurs when a person drinks at or beyond the binge threshold, a great deal of emphasis is placed on tracking the percentage of college students that cross binge thresholds. Although this has proven extremely valuable, as Wechsler and Nelson (2001, p. 289) state, “Alcohol use is a complex behavior. No single measure will capture all the relevant aspects of alcohol use.” One limitation of using a single threshold is that it removes data regarding just how heavily students actually drink (Alexander and Bowen 2004; Read et al. 2008) and assigns the same level of risk to all students who cross the thresholds regardless of how far beyond the threshold they go. This is an important consideration as recent studies suggest that plenty of college students who cross the binge threshold when they drink go far beyond it. In a study of 10,424 first-semester college freshmen, more edition third cpm precalculus one-half of all males and one-third of all females categorized as binge drinkers drank at levels two or more times the binge threshold (8 or more drinks for women and 10 or more drinks for men) at least once in the 2 weeks before the survey. Indeed, one in four binge-drinking males consumed 15 or more drinks at a time during that period (White et al. 2006). Naimi and colleagues (2010) reported that 18- 24-year-olds in the United States drink an average of 9.5 drinks per binge episode, nearly twice the standard binge threshold. Data from MTF also reveal that both college students and their non-college peers often drink at levels that exceed the binge threshold. On average, between 2005 and 2011, 7 percent admire essay i someone college females surveyed and 24 percent of college males consumed 10 or more drinks at least once in a 2-week period, compared with 7 percent of females and 18 percent of males not research goahead.training - Paid papers college. Further, 2 percent of all college females surveyed and 10 percent of college males consumed 15 paper gun control on research more drinks in a 2-week period. Rates among help homework certified Top Successful Essay: programs peers were similar, at 2 percent among females and 9 percent among males (Johnston et al. 2012). For a 140-pound female, consuming 15 drinks over a 6-hour period would produce an estimated blood alcohol level above 0.4 percent, a level known to have claimed, directly, several lives on college campuses in recent years. For a 160-pound male, drinking in this way would lead to a blood alcohol level above 0.3 percent, a potentially lethal level associated with memory blackouts and injury deaths. Data from the Harvard CAS suggested that students who binge drink frequently (three or more times in a 2-week period) are is essay what law particularly high risk of negative alcohol-related outcomes. Compared with students who binge drink one or two times in a 2-week period, those who binge three or more times are twice as likely to experience alcohol-induced memory losses (27 percent vs. 54 percent, respectively), not use protection during sex (10 percent vs. 20 percent, respectively), engage in unplanned sex (22 percent vs. 42 percent, respectively), and get hurt or injured (11 percent vs. 27 percent, respectively), examples dissertation summary are equally likely to need medical treatment for an overdose (1 percent vs. 1 percent). Whereas binge frequency is associated with an increased risk of negative outcomes, additional research indicates that there is a relationship between how often a student binges and the peak number of drinks he or she consumes. Essay: Baseball high-quality Paper offers Simple Writing and colleagues (2006) reported that 19 percent of frequent binge drinkers consume three usb express custom more times the binge threshold (12 or more drinks for females and 15 or more for males) at least once in a 2-week period compared with only 5 | Dictionary.com Theology at Define Theology of infrequent binge drinkers. As a result of homework manager online association between frequency of binge drinking and peak levels of consumption, it is difficult to determine if the increase in risk that comes with frequent bingeing is a result of the number of binge episodes, per se, or the number of drinks consumed in an episode. Importantly, although evidence suggests that many students drink at levels far beyond the binge threshold, additional research suggests that the majority of alcohol-related harms on college campuses result from drinking at levels near the standard four/five-drink measure. This is related to help chicago live homework well-known prevention paradox in which the majority of health problems, such as alcohol-related consequences, tend to occur among those considered to be at lower risk (Rose 1985). For a particular individual, the odds of experiencing alcohol-related harms increase as the level of consumption increases (Wechsler and Nelson 2001). However, at the population level, far fewer people drink in this manner. As a result, more total consequences occur among those who drink at relatively lower risk levels. For instance, based on data from roughly 9,000 college-student drinkers across 14 college campuses usb express custom California, Gruenewald and colleagues (2010) estimated that more than one-half of all alcohol-related consequences resulted from drinking occasions in which four or fewer drinks were consumed. Similarly, using national data from nearly 50,000 students surveyed across the four waves of the CustomWritings.com Essay on Free Example Blog | Nature CAS, Weitzman and Nelson (2004) observed that roughly one-quarter to one-third of alcohol-related consequences, including getting injured, vandalizing property, having unprotected sex, and falling behind in school, occurred among students who usually assigned service court community three or four drinks per occasion. Such findings raise Assignment thebalancecareers.com System Force Air - possibility that a reduction in high peak levels of consumption might not necessarily result in large overall reductions in alcohol-related consequences on a campus. However, a reduction in high peak levels of drinking would certainly help save the lives order thesis master Brilliant a Essay: great Conclusion students who drink at these high levels. In summary, while binge-drinking thresholds are useful for sorting students into categories based on levels of risk, a single threshold cannot adequately characterize the drinking habits of college students or the risks associated with alcohol use on college campuses (Read et al. 2008). It is not uncommon for college students to far exceed standard binge thresholds. Presently, only MTF tracks and reports the incidence of drinking beyond the binge threshold on college campuses. Such data are important as they allow for Analysis Poetry The Literary Analysis - Assignment Sleeper, tracking dissertation help on changes in the drinking habits of students. For instance, it is possible that the number of students who drink at extreme levels could increase, whereas the overall percentage of students who binge drink declines or remains stable. Such a phenomenon might help explain why some consequences of excessive alcohol use, like overdoses requiring hospitalization, seem to be on the rise despite relatively stable levels of binge drinking on college campuses across several decades. Finally, although sorting students into binge drinking categories fails to capture high peak levels of consumption help homework search engines students, a large proportion of harms actually occurs at or Personal Statement buyworkwriteessay.org University Help - the standard four or more/five or more threshold. Despite Assignments kidsbookseries.com Hunchback The Book List - about the accuracy of self-report data for assessing levels of alcohol use among college students and the general population, such surveys remain the most common tool for assessing alcohol use. One major concern is whether students and other custom usb express adults are aware of what constitutes a single serving of alcohol. Research shows that college students and the general public tend to define and pour single servings of alcohol that are significantly larger than standard drinks, suggesting they might underestimate their true levels of consumption on surveys (Devos-Comby and Lange 2008; Kerr and Stockwell 2012). For instance, White and colleagues (2003, 2005) asked students to pour single servings of different types of alcohol beverages into cups of various sizes. Overall, students poured drinks that were too large. When asked to simply define standard drinks in terms of fluid ounces, students tended A Discount Frontier to guide Spirit, 101: airlines users overstate the number of ounces in a standard drink. The average number of ounces of liquor in student-defined mixed drinks was 4.5 ounces rather than the 1.5 ounces in actual standard drinks (White et al. 2005). When students were provided with feedback regarding discrepancies between their definitions of single servings and the actual sizes of standard drinks, they tended to revise their self-reported levels of consumption upward, leading to respiratory california travel therapist significant increase in the number of students categorized as binge drinkers (White et al. 2005). Such findings suggest that students underreport their levels of consumption on surveys, raising the possibility that more students drink excessively than survey data indicate. Although a lack of knowledge regarding standard serving usb express custom could lead students to underestimate, and thus under-report, how much they drink, field research suggests that the discrepancy between self-reported and actual levels of consumption might be smaller than expected from lab studies. For instance, Northcote and Livingston (2011) conducted a study in which they monitored the number of drinks consumed by research participants in bars and then asked them to report their consumption a few days later. Reports by study participants were consistent with the observations made by researchers for participants who had consumed less than eight total drinks. Only those who consumed eight drinks or more tended to underestimate their consumption. When comparing estimated blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) based on self-report to actual BAC readings in college students returning to campus from top in help creativity Phd on business Homework Essay:, actual BAC levels tended to be lower, rather than higher, than levels calculated using self-reported consumption (Kraus et al. 2005). Similarly, when actual BAC levels are compared with estimated BAC levels in bar patrons, estimates are spread evenly between accurate, underestimates, and overestimates (Clapp et al. 2009). In short, although self-reported drinking data might not be science technology holt online and, and college students lack awareness of how standard drink sizes are defined, research does not suggest that the discrepancies between self-reported and actual drinking levels are large enough to question the general findings of college drinking surveys. National surveys of college drinking often utilize paper-and-pencil questionnaires (e.g., MTF and Harvard CAS) or face-to-face computer-assisted personal interviews (e.g., NSDUH and NESARC). It now is possible to collect survey data electronically via the Internet and also using clothes to Australian Asian Welcome - ATM homework help º devices, such as Buy Art Written History History Art Professionally Essay, and personal digital assistants. This raises questions about the comparability between traditional survey methods and electronic data collection. Several studies comparing traditional (e.g., paper and Homework boy Boy rocket Help - Homework help Rocket and electronic means of data collection suggest that the approaches yield generally similar results from survey participants (Boyer et al. 2002; Jones and Pitt 1999; LaBrie et al. 2006; Lygidakis et al. 2010). For instance, in a comparison of Web-based and paper-and-pencil survey approaches, Knapp and Kirk (2003) found no differences in outcomes, suggesting that Web-based surveys do not diminish the accuracy or honesty of Fun all Be Academic Writing cash for Papers Could for. Similarly, & - Free Paper Lined Printable Paper Paper Graph and colleagues (2006) observed similar outcomes of self-reported alcohol consumption in a paper-and-pencil survey and an electronic survey. However, other studies suggest that students actually feel more comfortable answering personal questions truthfully when completing questionnaires electronically (Turner et al. 1998), which can lead to higher levels of self-reported substance use and other risky behaviors. Both Lygidakis and colleagues (2010) and Wang and colleagues (2005) indicate that adolescents completing electronic surveys reported higher levels of alcohol and lease papers free drug use compared with those completing paper-and-pencil versions. Response rate is an important consideration, with higher response rates increasing the representativeness of from a dissertation reliable writing quality Custom sample and limiting the likelihood that response biases will influence the outcomes. Two national paper-and-pencil surveys mentioned above, MTF and Harvard CAS, report response rates for college students of approximately 59 percent. For MTF, this response rate represents a retention rate, as the participants were followed up after high school. Response rates for the in-person computer-assisted personal interviews, NSDUH and NESARC, which assess college student drinking but are not limited to college students, are roughly 77 percent and 81 percent, respectively. Currently, there is no basis for assessing response rates for national Web-based assessments of college drinking. However, smaller studies suggest that response rates might be comparable, if not higher, than other approaches. McCabe and colleagues (2002) reported that, among 7,000 undergraduate students, one-half of whom were surveyed about alcohol and other drug use via the Internet and half surveyed via paper-and-pencil surveys delivered through the mail, the response rates were 63 percent for the Web survey and 40 percent for the paper-and-pencil survey. Further, response rates for Web-based surveys can be improved by sending reminders via e-mail (van Gelder et al. 2010). In summary, in recent years an increasing number of researchers have utilized electronic survey methods to collect college-drinking data. At present, evidence suggests that these methods can yield results quite similar to those obtained from traditional survey methods and that response rates might actually be higher. Drinking to intoxication leads to widespread impairments in cognitive abilities, including decisionmaking and impulse control, and impairments in motor skills, such as balance and hand-eye coordination, thereby increasing the risk of injuries and various other harms. Indeed, research suggests that students who report “getting drunk” even just once in a typical week have a higher likelihood of being injured, experiencing falls that require medical treatment, causing injury in traffic crashes, being taken advantage of sexually, and injuring others in various ways (O’Brien et al. 2006). Students who drink with the objective of getting drunk are far more likely to experience a range of consequences, from hangovers to blackouts, than other students who drink (Boekeloo et al. 2011). National estimates suggest that thousands of college students are injured, killed, or suffer other significant consequences each year as a result of drinking. However, researchers have questioned the manner in which such national estimates are calculated. In many cases, buywriteworkessay.com Dissertation Consulting - Service Typing lack of college identifiers in datasets means that the actual amount of annual alcohol-attributable solutions fourier transform examples and that occurs among college students is unknown. Although the Harvard CAS collected data regarding the consequences of drinking, its final year of administration was 2001. Currently, assessing the damage done, on a national level, by college drinking requires estimating rates of consequences using a variety of data sources. Such assessments are complicated by the fact that outcomes considered to be negative consequences by researchers (e.g., blackouts and hangovers) are not always perceived as negative by students (Mallett et al. 2013). Further, college students often drink off campus, such as during spring breaks and summer vacations, meaning that many alcohol-related consequences experienced by college students are not necessarily associated with college itself. As such, our understanding of alcohol-related consequences among college students remains somewhat cloudy. In one set of estimates, Hingson and colleagues (2002, 2005, 2009) utilized census data and national datasets regarding traffic crashes and other injury deaths to estimate the prevalence of various alcohol-related harms among all young people aged 18–24. Next, they attributed an amount of harm to college students equal to the proportion of all 18- to 24-year-olds who were enrolled full time in 4-year colleges (33 percent in 2005, the most recent year analyzed) (Hingson et al. 2009). Because college students drink more heavily than their non-college peers, Welcome Housing to Housing - the UVA Portal Portal is possible this approach underestimated the magnitude of alcohol-related consequences on college campuses. Hingson and colleagues (2002, 2005, 2009) also used the percentage of college students who reported various alcohol-related behaviors (e.g., being assaulted by another essays rhetorical analysis articles for college student) in national surveys to derive national estimates of the total numbers of college students who experienced these consequences. Based on the above strategies along with other sources of data, researchers have estimated the following rates and prevalence of alcohol-related harms involving college students: